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ACTIVE INGREDIENTS

No animal testing

We do not test on animals

 

Our products were developed with active ingredients that were chosen based on clinical testing and performance. We searched the globe to find what actually nurtures the skin and shows visible results and we cross-referenced the scientific and dermatological attributes. All of our ingredients used in developing Skin Virtue's collection have been subjected to extensive physicochemical and clinical analysis. Each finished product is subjected to microbiological controls to ensure the highest-quality standards and optimal effectiveness. Our formulations provide the qualities necessary to give you with peace of mind in knowing that your skin will be healthy and look incredible, halting age in its tracks, with Skin Virtue there are no boundaries to beautiful, radiant skin.

 

Pure Anti Aging Highly Concentrative Active Ingredients

 

vitamin e in liposome

VITAMIN E (in liposomes); A liposome is a spherical vesicle having at least one lipid bilayer. Liposomes are used as a vehicle for administration of nutrients and pharmaceutical drugs. Liposomes are most often composed of phospholipids but may also include other lipids. Vitamin E in a fast-penetrating liposome delivery system provides the ability to deliver Vitamin E to deeper skin layers, increasing ingredient availability to the skin. This greater availability leads to substantially better performance. As an encapsulation technology, liposome delivery systems can also enhance the stability of ingredients by shielding them from common environmental factors. Vitamin E delivered through a liposomal delivery system allows for a more targeted administration method which provides superior therapeutic efficacy. Vitamin E has strong antioxidant properties which protect the skin cells against the damage caused by free-radicals and the peroxidation of lipid when delivered in a liposomal delivery system it increased the concentration and efficacy of the active ingredient. Enhancing the prevention of premature aging of the skin by increasing collagen synthesis and inhibiting collagen degradation in fibroblasts delivered to a specific desired site. Vitamin E is a major antioxidant in the stratum corneum, reducing the formation of free radicals induced by UV radiation when delivered in a liposome its efficacy is enhanced and it provides more targeted anti-aging, moisturising, and anti-inflammatory effects. It also helps to reduce wrinkles more efficiently. The substantiated benefits include enhancing the efficacy of active sunscreen ingredients, promoting wound healing, strengthening skin barrier function, protecting skin barrier lipid balance and reducing transepidermal water loss (TEWL), all of which are performed more effectively when delivered in a Liposomal delivery system.

 

 

Glycolic Acid

Glycolic Acid; is a type of alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) exfoliator naturally found in many plants including sugar cane. AHA’s effectively break down dead surface skin cells, smoothing the surface of the skin and improving radiance. Glycolic acid penetrates the skin efficiently, readjusts water percentages in the epidermis, stimulates collagen synthesis and promotes cell turnover to help even out skin tone, minimise fine lines and blemishes and improve the overall look and feel of skin. Consistent and repetitive treatment with glycolic acid has also been shown to improve acne scars and post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation.

 

 

Zinc PCA
Zinc PCA;  is a naturally occurring purifying humectant, obtained by the crystallisation of L’glutamic acid, it is an essential trace mineral and microelement mineral amino acid from a vegetal origin. Zinc PCA has astringent, anti-bacterial, anti-irritating and antiseptic properties which help to limit bacterial proliferation, calm skin and help to reinforce skin barrier function. It has a natural moisturising factor (NMF) which helps to keep the structure of the epidermis (outer layer of skin) is intact and healthy. It acts a sebum regulator by preventing the dihydrotestosterone enzyme in the skin which controls sebum production and is ideal for oily skin, acne, blemishes and seborrheic dermatitis. Zinc PCA also has anti-aging properties which reduce the activity of the enzyme collagenase that is responsible for the breakdown of healthy collagen in the skin resulting in increased elasticity.

 

 

Pomegranate Extract

Pomegranate Extract; is a water-soluble fruit extract of the pulp and seeds of the pomegranate. It is a powerful antioxidant, natural phytoestrogen and rare plant-based source of omega 5 fatty acid. It has many essential nutrients such as Vitamin C, folic acid, and polyphenols which can help strengthen the epidermis to maintaining the skin’s youthful appearance and protect it from harsh environmental stresses.Saccharide Isomerate; is a natural plant-derived marine ingredient, it acts as a water-binding agent and emollient. It is formed by the isomerisation of D-Glucose, it contains a natural carbohydrate complex which is found in the stratum corneum of human skin.  Skin cells are constantly exchanging signals to maintain proper functioning, with age a slowdown in this exchange rate occurs, resulting in incorrect communication that can lead to loss of tissue efficiency. Saccharide Isomerate works to enhance signaling exchange between epidermal and dermal cells and also the direct communication among neighbouring skin cells to maintain proper functioning. Saccharide Isomerate has a unique affinity with skin which ensures instant, deep hydration by generating a moisture reservoir that lasts for 72 hours after the last application. Consumer test panel confirms more than a 50% reduction in flakiness and itchiness caused by dry skin. Saccharide Isomerate works to deeply hydrate and soothe sensitive skin, improving cell communication and rejuvenating mature skin.

 

 

Saccharide Isomerate

Saccharide Isomerate; increases stratum corneum hydration and water retention in the short-term which consequently leads to a mid to long-term improvement in desquamation and in the epidermal barrier function. Tightness, itching and stinging caused by dry skin are all reduced for a more comfortable skin feeling. Improved softness and smoothness, as well as reduced flakiness, finally lead to a healthy skin appearance.

 

 

Ubiquinone

Ubiquinone; otherwise known as Co-Enzyme Q10, is a cellular antioxidant fat-soluble substance present in the cells of the body, including the skin. The latest research suggests that topical application of CoQ10 has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory and provides antioxidant benefits to the skin. It is an essential component in the biochemical machinery that produces biological energy (ATP) inside the cells. This powerful antioxidant strongly controls oxidative DNA damage in the cells by improving the efficacy of cellular energy production in the mitochondria (energy factories) of the cell. It helps to neutralise harmful free radicals, which are one of the causes of aging. Coenzyme Q10 also blocks the degradation of collagen, resulting in the maintenance of skin firmness and wrinkle reduction.

 

 

Olea Europaea Oil Unsaponifiables

Olea Europaea Oil Unsaponifiables; is a skin-identical repairing ingredient it is Ecocert and has strong antioxidant properties due to the potent free radical scavenger verbascoside. It is an anti-aging, anti-wrinkle functional ingredient with photoprotective activity. It is a functional ingredient, rich in phytosterols and triterpenic alcohols with remarkable emollient, softening, anti-reddening and sebum-restoring properties.

 

 

Sweet Almond Oil

Sweet Almond Oil; is extracted from the kernels of almond (Prunus amygdalus dulcis), which are commonly grown in Mediterranean countries and the west coast of America. It is also known as Almond Oil. Sweet Almond Oil is rich in oleic and linoleic fatty acids and contains vitamins A, B1, B2 and B6 as well as small amounts of vitamin E. This oil is widely used in cosmetic formulations as a skin conditioning agent due to its penetrating, smoothing, softening and moisturising properties. It can protect and nourish a wide variety of skin types and calm irritation caused by eczema.

 

 

Glycine Soja Protein

Glycine Soja Protein; is derived from naturally occurring phytosterols from soybean amino acids and is rich in protein, minerals and vitamins, especially vitamin E. Extracted and delivered in a concentrated form, this natural peptide complex has a rich amino acid profile with hydrophilic and lipophilic components and electrically charged side chains which help to protect elastic fibres from breakdown, preventing the loss of skin elasticity and helping to retain perfectly elastic skin conditions to provide younger more youthful looking skin while anti-sagging properties work to improve skins resilience and firmness.

 

 

Superoxide Dismutase Complex

Superoxide Dismutase Complex; (SOD) is an enzymatic antioxidant well known for its role in neutralising the superoxide free radical. It is widely believed that Superoxide Dismutase has the ability to enhance sunscreen products and protect against the damaging effects of the environment. These effects increase the number of free radicals the body encounters. Superoxide Dismutase acts as a free radical scavenger and balances out the number of excess radicals, ultimately protecting the skin from unnecessary damage. Superoxide Dismutase soothes the skin and helps combat against photo-aging, leaving the skin looking healthy, radiant and translucent. 

 

 

Methylsilanol Mannuronate

Methylsilanol Mannuronate; Silanols are organic derivatives of silicon, ours are extracted from laminaria, a brown algae. Methylsilanol Mannuronate binds moisture in the epidermis and provides long-lasting moisturising properties that help to combat the deterioration of collagen and elastin fibers in skin therefore firming and strengthening the skin. Methylsilanol Mannuronate is also known to act as an antioxidant to actively fight free radicals and prevent premature skin aging.

 

 

Sodium Hyaluronate

Sodium Hyaluronate;  is a salt of Hyaluronic Hyaluronic acid it is present in both the epidermis and dermis, it is the main substance found in the dermis where it has the greatest capacity to hold water and provide protective and structural support qualities. It is a major component of the extracellular matrix. Hyaluronic acid performs many functions of crucial importance in skin repairing and wound healing, its action as an anti-inflammatory agent on UV-induced skin inflammation helps to protect extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen from degradation, hence its role as an anti-wrinkle active. Hyaluronic acids potent water-binding properties and its great hydration capacity further helps to improve wrinkle depth and skin roughness, it enhances the appearance of dry or damaged skin by reducing flaking and restoring suppleness. Hyaluronic acid helps to restore skin elasticity and also enhances skin firmness and elasticity.

 

 

Hamamelis Water

Hamamelis Water; is extracted from the leaves of the Hamamelis Virginiana plant. In-vitro tests have demonstrated anti-inflammatory, bacteriostatic and antiseptic activity. Because of its antioxidant activity, Hamamelis Extract is useful in treating wrinkles and all oxidative processes which affect skin aging.

 

 

Rosewater

Rosewater; is an organically cultivated flower extract produced via steam distillation of Bulgarian rose petals (Rosa Damascena). Bulgarian rosewater is one of the best and most traditional facial cleansers and has multiple skin care uses. It is used in phytotherapy for its mildness, soothing and refreshing properties. Cosmetically, this product is recommended for sensitive skin care, anti-acne, nourishing and hydrating the skin, eye care, and baby wipes.

 

 

Panthenol

Panthenol; is the pro-vitamin of Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5), which plays a key role in the human intermediary metabolism, deficiency of Vitamin B5 can result in many dermatological disorders. It acts as a skin conditioning agent to provide deep penetrating moisture to the skin, stimulating the growth of key skin cells (particularly dermal fibroblasts) and remodels the skin matrix to provide wound healing and anti-inflammatory effects. Panthenol is also used in skincare products as a humectant because of its ability to attract and hold moisture. Panthenol improves skin barrier function and maintains the proliferation of fibroblasts which improves skin hydration, reduces transepidermal waterless (TEWL) and improves skin texture. Furthermore, it promotes wound healing, helps to restore damaged skin, reduce irritation and inflammation, improve superficial skin damage by helps to regenerate and strengthen the epidermis and stratum corneum (outer skin layers) and thus improves the skin's protective barrier.

 

Eco Pumice Powder

Eco Pumice Powder; is a naturally occurring exfoliating agent which is from a sustainable and environmentally friendly source. Pumice powder has gentle abrasive cleaning powers that work to gently polish away dead surface skin cells and reveals a smoother skin texture.

 

 

Sage Extract

Sage Extract; Sage belongs to the Lamiaceae plant family. The plant is common in the whole Mediterranean area and is cultivated in various European countries. The main components of the leaves are the essential oil (mainly consisting of thujone and cineole), tannins including rosmarinic acid and bitter substances (e.g. carnosol, carnosic acid). Cosmetically sage extracts are used due to their anti-bactericidal, anti-inflammatory and astringent effects in skin care, especially for oily skin. Sage Extract is used to treat irritated skin which tends to be impure, it provides soothing properties for the skin, as well as antioxidant benefits.

 

Bisabolol

Bisabolol; is a natural powerful remedy to very sensitive and easily inflamed and irritated skin, it protects the skin from the effects of daily stress while accelerating the healing process. Bisabolol is used in products for sensitive skin, baby care, and after-sun applications. Its added anti-inflammatory properties make it a truly versatile active ingredient for skin care.

 

 

Olive Oil

Olive Oil; is extracted from the olive fruit Olea Europaea. Olive oil contains natural nutrients and is rich in oleic acid and has conditioning properties, in facial and body care, olive oil aids the balance and restoring of the hydrolipid network, thus maintaining the softness and silkiness of the skin and preventing skin dryness.

 

 

Rosa Mosqueta Oil

Rosa Mosqueta Oil;  Rosehip Oil is obtained from the kernels of rose hips, which are the fruit of the wild rose bush which is native to the south of Chile, known locally as Rosa Mosqueta Oil. It has been found to have excellent skin healing, regenerating and rejuvenating properties, due to the presence of natural retinoic acid, which is a derivative of vitamin A. These properties lead from the oils used in the treatment of burned skin, stretch marks, scar tissue and photo-aged skin. It contains around 40% of an omega 6 fatty acid which makes it highly moisturising thus replenishing for dry and problem skin conditions such as eczema, it naturally promotes skin elasticity and firmness.

 

 

Hydrolyzed Elastin

Hydrolyzed Elastin; Elastin is the second most abundant structural protein in the body after collagen. It is found in most connective tissues in combination with other compounds including proteins, proteoglycans, and glycosaminoglycans. It is essential for the elasticity of the connective tissues. In the skin, elastin is intertwined with collagen fibres, forming a sub-epidermal network. Hydrolyzed Elastin has a high affinity with skin and provides beneficial effects in skin care, its smooth film forming properties provide a protective moisture retentive film which provides a soothing effect on dry and chapped skin conditions. Elastin enhances the flexibility and elasticity of the epidermis primarily due to its moisture-binding ability leading to improvement in skin tone, suppleness, and appearance.    

 

 

Retinyl Palmitate

Retinyl Palmitate; is the ester of retinol (vitamin A) combined with palmitic acid, a saturated fatty acid. It is a cell-communicating ingredient and antioxidant and is one of the most important vitamins for the appearance of the skin. Retinyl palmitate is a less irritating form of retinol and is gentle on sensitive skin. It facilitates communication between cells, encouraging aging skin cells to continue their renewal process and regenerate collagen and elastin to help prevent the appearance of wrinkles, fine lines, and aging skin. Retinyl palmitate diffuses rapidly into the stratum corneum and epidermis after application and works to repair the lower layers of dermis where collagen and elastin reside, encouraging the production of new healthy skin cells to replace previously damaged skin. It increases the cellular turnover rate, which helps to create better and healthier skin cells, thus speeding up the production and retention of collagen within the dermis while preventing the degradation of elastic fibres which helps to support the skin's structure. Retinyl palmitate also increases the thickness of the epidermis and significantly improves the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, pigmentation, uneven skin tone, rough and crepey texture, firmness and clarity of the skin while providing antioxidant support.  Retinyl Palmitate is gentle and can be used morning and night, its potent antioxidant effect works to protect the skin from environmental damage caused by UV exposure.

 

 

Shea Butter

Shea Butter; is a nourishing plant lipid obtained by cold pressing the seeds from the fruit of the Karite tree. The Karite tree grows wild in the drier regions of the equatorial zone of Central Africa. Shea butter is a rich source of antioxidant and an excellent ointment base, it is a skin-identical ingredient with a high content of oil unsaponifiable matter and has a natural moisturising factor (NMF) which helps to keep the structure of the epidermis (outer layer of skin) is intact and healthy. It is an emollient, moisturiser and skin conditioner with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities that protect the skin and repairs damage caused by climatic aggressions, pollution and UV radiations. Its oily qualities help to assist cutaneous dryness, dermatitis, eczema, erythema, and burns while easing superficial skin irritation and improving skin softness. It is also able to protect the skin against photo-aging and ease superficial irritation from the sun, it exhibits anti-inflammatory properties due to its natural phytosterol content. Shea butter contains fatty acids that are known to influence barrier recovery and provide the skin with soothing, regenerating and protective virtues.

 

 

PhytoCellTec™ Malus Domestica

PhytoCellTec™ Malus Domestica; is a patented liposomal preparation based on the stem cells of a rare Swiss apple. It was the first plant stem cell active ingredient on the market whose effect was evaluated on human skin stem cells. It can protect the longevity of skin stem cells, delay senescence of essential stem cells, increase the vitality of skin stem cells and combats chronological aging.  Studies showed that PhytoCellTecTM Malus Domestica helps skin stem cells to maintain their characteristics and their capacity to build new tissues as well as delay aging while having an anti-wrinkle effect. This unique and revolutionary anti-aging ingredient is able to protect the most precious skin cells and the skin stem cells against premature aging providing optimal stem cell longevity. Stem cell longevity is related to specific stem cells which have a unique growth characteristic. These unspecialised cells can make identical copies of themselves as well as differentiate to become specialised cells. Two basic types of stem cells are present in the human body, Embryonic stem cells and Adult stem cells. Embryonic stem cells are found in blastocysts and can grow and differentiate into one of the more than 220 different cell types which make up the human body. Adult stem cells located in some adult tissues can only differentiate into their own or related cell types. These cells act as a repair system for the body but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs such as blood, skin or intestinal tissues. In the human skin, two types of adult stem cells have been identified, epithelial skin stem cells and hair bulge stem cells. Epithelial skin stem cells are located in the basal layer of the epidermis and hair bulge stem cells located in the hair follicle. Fast regenerating tissues such as the epidermis are particularly dependent on their stem cells because only stem cells retain the capacity to divide and thus to provide new tissues. Epidermal stem cells have two main functions, to replenish and maintain the balance of cells within the skin and to regenerate damaged tissues. Skin stem cells have a limited life expectancy, intrinsic or extrinsic stress factors can affect their functionality. With age, skin stem cells are less active and lower in number. This explains why the depletion of skin stem cells is regarded as the primary cause of skin aging. All stem cells, independently of their origin, plant, animal or human, contain specific epigenetic factors whose function is to maintain the self-renewal capacity of stem cells. Therefore the Malus Domestica stem cells are used to help to preserve the vitality of human skin stem cells. Studies clearly show that Malus Domestica stem cell extract helps the epidermal stem cells to maintain their stem cell characteristics, skin stem cells keep their ability to proliferate longer and to undergo the complex process of stratification and differentiation. Thus, the Malus Domestica stem cell extract helps the epidermal stem cells to retain their capacity to build new tissues.

 

 

Tocopheryl Acetate

Tocopheryl Acetate; is a fat-soluble form of Vitamin E, It is the ester of acetic acid and tocopherol. It has strong antioxidant properties which protect the skin cells against the damage caused by free-radicals and the peroxidation of lipids. It can prevent premature aging of the skin by enhancing collagen synthesis and inhibiting collagen degradation in fibroblasts. It is a major antioxidant in the stratum corneum, reducing the formation of free radicals induced by UV radiation. Moreover, it provides anti-aging, moisturising and anti-inflammatory effects. Vitamin E also helps to reduce wrinkles. Its substantiated benefits include enhancing the efficacy of active sunscreen ingredients, promoting wound healing, strengthening skin barrier function, protecting skin barrier lipid balance and reducing transepidermal water loss (TEWL). In combination of vitamin C, vitamin E provides superior protection against sunburn and erythema as vitamin C regenerates oxidised vitamin E. Combination treatment is also more effective in lightening the skin than vitamin E alone. Our formulation including vitamin E + vitamin C help to reduce hyperpigmentation and significantly improve melasma more than a single preparation of vitamin E alone, improving skin tone by suppressing melanin synthesis.  

 

 

Acetyl Hexapeptide-8Acetyl Hexapeptide-8; peptide solution is the first anti-wrinkle hexapeptide with a Botulinum Toxin-like mechanism of action. It reduces the depth of the wrinkles on the face caused by the contraction of muscles of facial expression, especially in the forehead and around the eyes.

 

 

Ginko Biloba

Ginko Biloba; is a skin soothing, antioxidant plant extract, ginkgo leaves contain flavonoids and terpenoids which have potent antioxidant properties that may protect the health of cells and DNA. Ginkgo’s ability to protect the skin from environmental stressors assists in helping to reduce the appearance of wrinkles and fine lines. Extracts from ginkgo leaves have also shown to help with oily skin and clogged pores as well as for people with sensitive skin.

 

 

Caffeine Powder

Caffeine Powder; is a hydrophilic substance used in a wide range of cosmetic applications for its antioxidant properties. It is a lipolytic agent also used for its microcirculation and its draining action which helps to reduce the appearance of puffy eyes and dark rings around the eye.

 

 

Cornflower Water

Cornflower Water; is a plant extract of the Centaurea cyanus plant family, the plant is native to Europe and grows wild in all temperate regions. Cornflower is derived from the flower of the cornflower plant, the flowers are gathered just after they open. Cornflower provides astringent, free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory effects to sensitive skin and is used for after sun care. The main components of the blossom are flavonoids, sesquiterpene lactones including cnicin, acetylenes, and coumarins. Cnicin is slightly antibiotic. It is used as a softening agent, astringent, and to increase emollience. Cornflower is recommended for its soothing properties particularly in cases of irritated, sensitive of tired eyes. Purple coneflower stimulates the fibroblast as a hyaluronidase inhibitor and has normalising properties on wrinkles or stretch marks. It strengthens the skin's natural defenses and is indicated for the care of tired, chapped and sensitive skins.

 

 

Carrot Oil
Carrot Oil; is a skin-identical plant extract, it is extracted from the roots of "Daucus carota L.". Carotenoids are natural multicolored compounds that occur abundantly in plant pigments. Carrot Oil is used in skin formulations to nourish, tighten, revitalise, and rejuvenate the skin. It visibly improves skin tone, elasticity, and general skin health. Its natural moisturising factor (NMF) works to slow down the progression of visible wrinkles. Carrot oils potent antioxidant properties help to reduce the effects of sun damage, effectively preventing and controlling the production of free radicals by working to protect the skin against oxidative processes and environmental damage. Carrot Oil has anti-inflammatory and calming properties and is appropriate for use on sensitive and irritated skin.

 

 

Sesame Seed Oil
Sesame Seed Oil; has excellent skin softening and emollient properties, it exhibits powerful natural anti-oxidants that offer anti-radical and anti-oxidant properties and has excellent penetrating qualities and good spreadability on the skin. It also exhibits exceptional antiseptic properties, hence its effectiveness in treating sensitive skin conditions such as atopic eczema and psoriasis.

 

 

Coconut Oil

Coconut Oil; has emollient properties, its light texture is ideal for dry, itchy and sensitive skins. It works to reduce cutaneous dryness to assist in moisturisation after exposure to sun and other harsh elements.

 

 

Squalane

Squalane; derived from olives is a skin-identical emollient with antioxidant properties, it is a natural component of the skin. Squalane also exhibits immune-stimulating properties and is used to correct dryness and scaling of the skin which gives the skin a soft, smooth appearance.

 

 

Glycerin

Glycerin; is a skin-identical and repairing ingredient and is one of the most important and widely used ingredients in skin care formulations. It is naturally occurring in the body and is produced from the metabolism of fats and oils into fatty acids and glycerin. It is a water-soluble, odorless, colourless, naturally occurring humectant commonly used as a moisturiser, solvent, or lubricant which helps the skin to retain moisture, it has a natural moisturising factor (NMF) which helps to keep the structure of the epidermis (outer layer of skin) is intact and healthy.

 

 

Ascorbyl Palmitate

Ascorbyl Palmitate; is a naturally derived, stable, non-acidic and oil-soluble derivative of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and palmitic acid (fatty acid), also known as Vitamin C Ester. It functions as a potent clarifying antioxidant and anti-aging active ingredient, it is an effective collagen builder and free radical scavenger and is also used as an anti-wrinkle and whitening agent. Ascorbyl Palmitate lipophilic properties (lipid soluble) enhance the penetration into the skin epidermis and dermis to deliver antioxidants faster than water soluble Vitamin C, it helps to prevent cellular aging by protecting skin cells in the extracellular matrix to stimulate collagen synthesis and prevents collagen cross-linking,  oxidation of proteins, and oxidative degradation of lipids know as peroxidation. Ascorbyl palmitate regenerates α-tocopherol (a form of vitamin E), a lipophilic antioxidant, by effectively reducing α-tocopheroxyl radicals. Ascorbyl Palmitate effectively protects hyaluronic acid in the skin structure, hyaluronic acid is an important component of the extracellular matrix and is the key molecule involved in skin moisture which helps to retain and improve skin’s hydration levels, maintaining suppleness and skin tone. Ascorbyl Palmitate works to prevent collagen cross-linking while supporting regulation and improving the transport mechanisms of growth factors in the dermis. Ascorbyl palmitate also helps to support the skin’s own antioxidant system which provides optimal antioxidant protection and effectively reduces environmental damage to improve skin physiology.

 

 

 

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